Marion James, Istanbul
Statistics published by the Pensions Monitoring Centre reveal that the number of participants in the BES system rose from 5,063,000 at the end of 2015 to 6,036,000 at the end of 2016 (an increase of 19%).
Coupling this statistic with population figures issued by the Department of Population and Citizenship Affairs of the Ministry of the Interior, this represents one in seven of the population aged 20-54.
The minimum age at entry for the BES system is 18 and the usual exit age is 56. Government issued population statistics show there are potentially a little over 42 million people in this catchment group, meaning that the penetration rate has reached 14.3%.
The growth in the number of participants in the system can be shown as follows: